Quickly find out whether we have already addressed any questions you might have. The Frequently Asked Questions listed below have been aggregated from the many inquiries we have received over the last 7+ years and particularly since the coronavirus pandemic began and are being updated whenever possible.

We welcome all inquiries. The better we can understand your challenges, the better we can design solutions for them around these new technological capabilities. If there is something that is on your mind that we might not have covered, please get in touch with us today!

Far UV Technologies would like to help you in any way we can.

Click below to see our commons questions and answers…

A good overview of Far UV technology, including its efficacy and safety, can be found in the following link to a White Paper recently published by Boeing:


Far UV can autonomously and continuously disinfect* viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in which potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. Along with effective diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies, the elimination of pathogens1 in occupied spaces is a critical element for the eradication of disease. Far UV technology is an essential addition to existing sanitation practices, as part of a multi-pronged approach to prevent the spread of existing and emerging infectious diseases.

To date, we are unaware of any bacteria, viruses, or fungi that far UV light has not been able to successfully inactivate or kill. Efficacy data confirming 99.9% disinfection* or better is available specifically assessing Krypton 222nm far UV devices against organisms such as SARS-CoV-2 (the pathogen1 that causes COVID-19), the common cold or flu, foodborne illnesses caused by E. coli and Salmonella, hospital-acquired infections (HAI) caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), and even mold (aspergillus niger). The rapidly growing list , including the pathogens1 and surrogates published by the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA), Columbia University Medical Center and several others is available upon request.


There is ample publicly available peer-reviewed literature available. Links for a few of these and other webinars are supplied below from some of the leading subject matter experts in the industry. We will be adding to this list periodically:

The Krypton™ light sanitizes the air it travels through and the surfaces it hits. While it effectively inactivates or kills unwanted pathogens,1 it does not remove soil or spills from surfaces. As a result, we recommend using Krypton™ disinfection* lighting as part of a multi-layered sanitation approach, combining it with existing conventional cleaning methods.

Krypton disinfection* lighting is appropriate for use in almost any space you would like to protect from airborne or surface pathogens.1 Far UV is currently being used in schools, defense applications, hospitals, medical and dental clinics, elderly care facilities, airports, buses, offices and elevators, daycare centers, homeless shelters, hotels, retail, restaurants, gymnasiums, locker rooms, fitness facilities, dining facilities and more. We invite you to contact us to discuss your specific needs. Our team likely has far more application development experience with 222nm Far UV than any other company and can help design an effective implementation for your applications.

We recommend prioritizing use in the highest-traffic, highest-risk often occupied locations. Krypton disinfection* lighting can be used alone or as part of a multi-pronged strategy to keep your facilities or vehicles safe.

The area of coverage depends on your room dimensions, the user risk profile and the Krypton solutions chosen. The lights can provide disinfection* for up to or over 1,000 square feet of space. Even a single light can materially reduce the viral load of almost any space. As a result, Krypton disinfection* lighting can fit into most budgets. The higher the ceiling, the wider the coverage (but the weaker the light – think of shining a flashlight on a wall, and how the beam spreads and dissipates as you get further from the wall). The decreased intensity still provides disinfection*, it just changes how long the light needs to be on to achieve the same effect as it does on closer air or surfaces. For broader coverage, strategically spaced lamps could be installed around a room creating overlapping treatment zones (much in the way regular lighting plans are designed), potentially providing even greater coverage or efficacy. Any certified electrician can install Krypton lighting. After reviewing your building dimensions, electrical and mechanical floor plans, we or our strategic distributors, sales reps, or installers will work with you to help determine how many, and where, Krypton lights should be placed in your facility. Please don’t hesitate to send us your dimensional and electrical floor plans (including ceiling heights) to expedite the process along with your priority areas for Krypton protection (if known).

Our most common commercial solutions are our Krypton-11 and Krypton-36 overhead or Upper Room lighting fixtures. They are a set-it-and-forget-it solution resembling oversized smoke detectors, which continuously and autonomously disinfect a given area of surfaces and the air above them. They would typically be installed in your highest traffic – highest risk often occupied areas. The Krypton-11 is best used with ceiling heights below 10 feet (3 meters) and the Krypton-36 is best utilized with ceiling heights 10+ feet.

The Krypton Shield is a compact collapsible mobile floor lamp that is about the size of a golf umbrella that can be quickly deployed with a telescoping pole on a tripod to up to 8 ft ceiling heights or more. The Krypton Shield is plug-and-play right out of the box (does not require electrical installation). Finally, we have codeveloped high-powered handheld wand solutions with Boeing operating at 222 nm for very rapid three-log disinfection* of surfaces. These devices were designed for the rapid cleaning of airplane cockpits in between crew changes where individually cleaning hundreds of knobs is not practical with conventional wipe methods and using an abundance of chemicals on electronics is discouraged. Please see our product specification sheets for more detail or contact us to discuss your application.

Our consumer offerings include the Krypton Guard, Legacy Guard and MVP.

Unfortunately, Far UV-C is best created with excimer lamps and these specialty lights cannot be used with existing lighting fixtures. Far UV Technologies has over seven years of experience in the design of reliable, efficient, and cost-effective Far UV products and given the high degree of know-how needed to engineer and commercialize market-ready products and the importance for us and our component providers to provide effective solutions, we are not offering components for sale for integration into other products at this time.

Most Kryptontm Far UV bulbs will last about 10,000 hours.  As with any other light, you can extend the useful life in practice by simply turning it off whenever is not needed (either because the room is not occupied or no longer requires disinfection*). A well-designed system will not only take into account product life but also disinfection* efficacy, safety, and upfront cost. When the useful life of a Krypton lamp has ended, much like other electronic hardware, it is often currently more economical to replace the entire fixture rather than try to replace components.

The limited warranty set forth below is given by Far UV Technologies, Inc. and applies to the Far UV Technologies fixture only.  The product when delivered to you in new condition in its original container is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service for a period of 3 years from the date of purchase.  This does not include the bulb itself.  If the product is found to be defective during this warranty period Far UV Technologies will repair or exchange the unit for a new or refurbished unit as determined by Far UV Technologies.

Far UV Standard Terms and Conditions

While Krypton disinfection* lighting is designed not exceed the ACGIH guidelines when used as directed, it is not a cure for COVID-19 or other diseases and is not intended to be used for disinfecting people or equipment to be used in medical procedures on people. Instead, it is meant to disinfect the environments (air and surfaces) that people inhabit or come into contact with to prevent the risk of infection between people. As a result, Krypton disinfection* lights are not medical devices and thus do not require FDA approval. If others are interested in using 222nm lighting in medical devices, those products may require FDA approval. Far UV Technologies is regulated and registered with the EPA under Establishment #96253-MO-1.  Far UV Technologies complies with all FIFRA labeling and other regulatory requirements.

It is unfortunately very difficult for an end-user without NIST calibrated equipment to visually tell the difference between 222nm Krypton disinfection* lighting and traditional 254nm UV-C in operation. If it is not using krypton to generate 222nm or 207nm light, it is not Far UV. Current material limitations prohibit LEDs from efficiently being able to create UV much below 260nm so there are no currently effective Far UV LED alternatives.

Using the brand name Krypton™ will hopefully minimize confusion versus other “UVC” 254nm alternatives who have been more recently renaming themselves Far UVC and causing confusion among potential purchasers seeking a human-safe and effective solution for “occupied” space applications. We have seen advertisements for other systems claiming to be Far UVC or even 222nm systems that are not. We recommend purchasing Krypton disinfection* lighting from reputable sources. Please do not hesitate to contact us to ensure your supplier is sourcing their product from reputable and reliable sources.

While it has long been a question of when, and not if, a global pandemic would occur, the recent rapid spread of COVID-19 in our increasingly interconnected world has caused global socio-economic and political unrest at an unprecedented scale. The economic cost has been several trillion dollars with unemployment rates not seen since the great depression. The reality of COVID-19, and fear of inevitable future outbreaks, have significantly heightened demand for new technologies for mitigating the spread of dangerous pathogens.1

Krypton™ disinfection* lighting (operating at 222nm—Far Ultraviolet light wavelength) can autonomously and continuously disinfect viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of the coronavirus and similar outbreaks where potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. While each human or animal has a different immune system response and vulnerability to either an initial infection (which can often be asymptomatic in the case of COVID-19) or subsequent infection to COVID-19 or any other infectious disease (when the body is weakened), Krypton disinfection* lighting can significantly reduce the viral load of an environment before our bodies even encounter them.

UV lighting capable of reliably reproducing a narrow band around 222nm has, until relatively recently, simply not been technically or commercially available, which prevented data from being captured and evaluated for potential applications. In addition, in the pre-COVID-19 era, demand for disinfection* of the spaces people occupy was low, as traditional sanitation practices were, with some notable exceptions such as hospital-acquired infections and foodborne illness, able to either effectively mitigate the spread of illness or people had just accepted the risks, even if better solutions were available. Further, most people alive today had not previously faced a global pandemic, and with short memories and/or a fatalistic belief that nothing could be done to eradicate disease, there was less concern or at least a lack of a call to action regarding infectious disease-causing pathogens.1

Far UV has been proven to be the safest and/or most effective evidenced-based disinfection* method by leading researchers from Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins, Colorado, Purdue, St Andrews, Tayside, Leeds, Hiroshima, Kobe and countless other reputable academic medical research institutions, corporations such as Boeing and Acuity, trade organizations such as ASP and IUVA and under contract with NASA and the Department of Defense.

Before the pandemic, Far UV Technologies was able to fund its research and development through grants and awards from NASA and the US Army. After the pandemic started, commercial demand for better disinfection* solutions provided an opportunity for Far UV Technologies to double its sales and production capacity every few months with internally generated positive cash flows. The technology and company risks have now been reduced enough for conventional lending and equity alternatives to fund our increasing working capital requirements. While we did not plan on raising external equity capital, the over $3 trillion of COVID-19 relief funding targeting markets like education, healthcare and transportation, where we have already proven our best in class solutions, have accelerated our growth plans and working capital requirements.

The impact of Krypton™ disinfection* lighting has been and will continue to be profound. The coronavirus and other recent new contagious diseases such as SARS, MERS, Ebola, and others have proven in an increasingly interconnected world that there are no real borders when it comes to infectious disease. Current estimates are that approximately 70% or more of the global population across almost every country and/or demographic may eventually be infected by COVID-19 alone and that as many as 1% or more of those may eventually succumb to the disease. Dangerous new pathogens1 used to spring up every hundred years. More recently, with climate change and in an increasingly connected world, new infectious disease outbreaks have been occurring about every three years (SARS, MERS, Ebola…). If that pattern holds true we should expect the next dangerous pathogen1 to emerge as soon as this year. Yet this pales in comparison to infectious disease in general, which is all around us from foodborne illnesses such as E Coli, Salmonella and Listeria, to hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA and C Diff, to TB, mold and even the common cold and flu. Throughout recorded history, one out of every three people born has died of an infectious disease. As a result, Krypton Disinfection* Lighting could potentially save billions of lives. If there is anything that COVID-19 has made abundantly clear, it is that expediting the containment or mitigation of infectious diseases will not only save countless lives but provide significant economic, societal, environmental and political benefits. We not only have to address COVID-19, but what comes next.

COVID-19 has been a stark reminder about the biological threats all around us. Social distancing, proper hand hygiene and wearing face masks have helped slow but not stopped the spread of COVID-19, nor will they likely stop the next dangerous pathogen which according to recent trends is due to emerge within the next year. Even with vaccines, we’re still just playing more defense and not actually killing the dangerous pathogens in the air and on the surfaces all around us. But we can’t safely begin relaxing our defenses anytime soon until we reduce the viral load in the air we breathe and on the surfaces we touch all around us.

100% of contamination events occur from someone breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing or singing in a space or onto their hands which they later touch surfaces with. The goal is to reduce the viral load in the air and on the surfaces, the particles fall to or are touched by a contaminated person as completely and quickly as possible after a contamination event and there is simply nothing more immediate and effective than Krypton disinfection* lighting at doing so.

Krypton Disinfection* Lighting provides the equivalent of an extra N95 mask for every occupant in a space and allows us to start playing offense and reduce the viral load instead of just playing defense, dodgeball or hide and seek. Krypton Disinfection* Lighting provides safer environments for us to occupy which will expedite our return to normalcy. Some state and local authorities have already begun increasing occupancy limits for buses or other establishments when Krypton Disinfection* lighting is installed as part of a COVID-19 safety strategy in recognition of the safer environments they are providing for their passengers or patrons.

In July of 2023, ASHRAE established a new Standard for the Control of Infectious Aerosols.  This new standard is being implemented by architects and facility owners and operators to protect themselves from the prospective liability of doing nothing (similar to fire protections etc).  As this standard becomes integrated into building codes, UV solutions will be significantly favored given their efficacy, energy and cost advantages.

As a recipient of multiple peer-reviewed Phase I, II and III NASA and Department of Defense SBIR research and development contracts, the company has been granted unique Federal designation under the SBIR Reauthorization Act and the SBA SBIR/STTR Policy Directive.  While not specifically endorsed by any agency, the SBIR Congressional Mandate provides Far UV Technologies with unique sole sourcing options to minimize potential contracting delays and requires potential Federal purchasers of Far UV solutions to first request permission from the SBA to purchase non-SBIR alternatives https://www.sbir.gov/tutorials/data-rights/tutorial-4. This has led to a surge of Krypton disinfection* lighting installations across the country including but not limited to several Air Force bases and the top levels of the Pentagon with many more in the queue.

Given the increasing demand and interest in rapid deployment, Far UV Technologies has also been issued National Stock Numbers for Krypton Disinfection* Lighting as a critical trusted supply requirement by the Defense Logistics Agency further facilitating the preferential ease of acquisition and use for many years to come. Krypton Disinfection* Lighting is Made in the USA. We’re networked in through the highest levels of the defense community, Federal, State and local Government agencies and their representatives.  Krypton Far UV is also available on Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business GSA schedules as well as state and national coops.  Please contact us for more information to facilitate your procurement requirements.

We would love your help! If you’re interested in joining our mission to rid the world of infectious disease-causing pathogens,1 the easiest and most impactful thing you can immediately do is help us raise awareness about the opportunity for Krypton™ disinfection* lighting to be part of the immediate and long-term solution. This could be with your families, friends or communities all of which may have excellent opportunities to bring safer and more effective long-term solutions in the various often fragmented markets we are trying to help, from schools, to healthcare facilities to transportation and many more. Keeping safe from dangerous pathogens1 is now an option and end-users who want to increase confidence in their safety and want it can now ask for or demand it from their employers or political representatives. Pathogens1 do not know borders, gender, age or ethnicity.

You can also help with referrals to domestic or global end-users, channel partners, influencers, media, investors, or employment candidates. If you believe you have important access to these or other important channels/connections, please spread the word and/or contact us at your earliest convenience for potential introductions. Please share our website, contact information, and/or story via whatever medium you think most appropriate. Awareness is our current greatest challenge. We very much appreciate any help you can provide in overcoming this pandemic, future ones and even many of the common now preventable illnesses we’ve all just had to deal with.

If you’re interested in a more significant role, please send a cover letter and resume or your thoughts to info@faruv.com. We are also establishing a global network of strategic partners for sales representation and installation services. If you are an electrical contractor and would like to carry or install our product, please contact us.

Far UV Technologies has done a variety of limited testing on all kinds of surfaces from plastics to steel, wood, paper, countertops, clothing, paint, and food under our NASA contract and beyond. At this point, we have not noticed significant material degradation with our relatively low power lamps. Boeing has also completed significant materials testing with higher-powered lamps and also confirmed little to no materials degradation for the materials found in an airplane cockpit beyond potential discoloration for some plastics. Presumably, for the same reason, 222nm cannot penetrate the human and animal cells, the physical characteristics prevent it from penetrating most surfaces and the potential to induce significant material damage. That said, we will continue to be testing organic materials for potential longer-term impacts and recommend users with potentially sensitive applications consult with us for installation best practices.

Yes, but they do often differ from the protocols and equipment used to validate 254nm UV-C disinfection* performance. Below are a couple of the challenges we have encountered in the market and solutions for them:

  • 254nm calibrated dosage strips or dosimeters often do not accurately measure 222nm fluence/dosage. While many of these devices claim detection capabilities for wavelengths between 200-280nm, they are often one or more orders of magnitude less likely to detect light at the far end of the spectrum (between 200-230nm) and/or extrapolate expected dosage based on mercury lamp curves. Far UV Technologies uses NIST calibrated Thorlabs, Hamamatsu, and International Light sensors for accurate 222nm measurements in the labs and quality control prior to shipping. These are commercially available for purchase and Far UV Technologies has also developed a new line of lower cost reliable handheld meters calibrated to 222nm to validate and certify dosage in the field. Far UV Technologies and/or its installers certify our installations and provide as-installed disinfection* confirmation when we or our network of contractors install Krypton disinfection* solutions. In addition, other industry participants have created new 222nm calibrated films that can also indicate dosage.
  • Measuring microbiological efficacy in the field is typically not practical for any disinfection* solution as the preexisting bacterial or viral loads and types are unknown. The current gold standard for disinfection* efficacy is to introduce known concentrations of known pathogens,1 treat them, culture them and then determine disinfection* efficacy ~24-48 hours later. However, few end users prefer to introduce virulent pathogens1 into their environments due to the intrinsic safety risks. As a result, accurately measuring the Krypton Far UV fluence as noted above and then referencing tables of lab proven efficacy are currently the best ways to validate and certify disinfection* safely in facilities and vehicles. That said, Far UV Technologies is supporting several academic and industry studies and will continue to welcome and support institutional partners to further validate our products in the field and in the labs.
  • PCR techniques can help identify bacterial or viral presence but are not good at confirming whether RNA is alive or dead, just that it is present. This is a challenge with 222nm as Far UV kills the pathogens1 through protein damage, eliminating the chance of infectivity but the nonviable cells are still detected with PCR. We confirmed this under our NASA testing and Hiroshima University confirmed it as well in their published study on 222nm efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 noted in #3. The TCID50 assay has proven to be a more effective microbiological test method than PCR.
  • Some standardized test protocols utilize protein-rich bovine or other solutions when testing which inhibit 222nm test accuracy. A growing body of evidence is suggesting the most dangerous particles are the smallest droplets that can remain airborne longer and can reach deeper into the lungs of an uninfected individual. The smaller the droplet, the less potential saliva or other accompanying materials/solution and the less the real world impact on 222nm penetration of the targeted pathogens1.  Ironically, the efficacy of 222nm Krypton Far UV in saliva has been shown to be even more effective as the natural decay is reduced in the controls but the inactivation of Far UV has not been materially impacted.

We recommend end users utilize NALMCO certified GUV installers.  Far UV Technologies and AeroMed are certified GUV Management Consultants, the highest  level of certification ensuring safe and effective installations.

Far UV devices for air, surface and water disinfection* have been documented in technical and other publications since the 1980s, if not earlier. Much of that prior art is now available in the public domain and in commercial use. Since completing an intellectual property landscape analysis in early 2017, Far UV Technologies has filed multiple utility and design patents and trademarks to protect its own innovations and brands. Far UV Technologies has also entered into a Technology and Licensing Agreement with Boeing to provide its customers the combined benefits of one of the largest Intellectual Property portfolios in the industry. Finally, the company’s management team also has as much if not more manufacturing know-how, real-world applications development expertise and actual installations with end-users than anyone else in the industry allowing for the design, delivery, and implementation of the most effective, and cost-efficient solutions which have led to significant and important additional trade secrets.

A market competitor (Sterilray) had previously made broad IP claims against other Far UV companies and end users of Far UV technologies. On October 11, 2023, after an extensive Inter Partes Review, the USPTO Board issued its Final Written Decision on Sterilray’s‘605 patent finding all challenged claims obvious and invalidating it.  Then, on November 14, 2023, the Board issued its Final Written Decision in the Inter Partes Review challenging the ‘642 patent finding all of the challenged claims unpatentable, and further denied Sterilray’s motion to amend.  Shortly thereafter in December of 2023, SterilRay informed the court they did not intend to respond to the IPR on their ‘951 patent, almost insuring it will also be invalidated, ending potential further threats to Far UV providers or their customers any further, without incurring prospective legal damages for tortious interference.  If you believe you may have been exposed to false marketing claims around prospective IP infringement, please do not hesitate to let us know.

Yes! Krypton Disinfection* Lighting qualifies for ESSER (CARES Act, CRRSAA, ARPA) and other Federal funding that can pay for up to the entire cost of the equipment and installation. Other state and local funding is also often available to mitigate COVID-19 or otherwise improve public safety. Eligibility includes but is not limited to education, healthcare, transportation, infrastructure, various non-profits and restaurant applications. In addition, Far UV Technologies and its multiple strategic partners can also provide financing solutions for Krypton disinfection* lighting.  Finally, given the upcoming requirements to comply with the ASHRAE 241 Standard for the Control of Infectious Aerosols throughout building codes will create significant motivation for utilities to provide substantial rebates for UV to avoid significant new energy infrastructure requirements.

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1Refer to product specifications, example here: Far UV Lighting for efficacy claims and claim substantiation regarding specific products and pathogens.