Quickly find out whether we have already addressed any questions you might have. The Frequently Asked Questions listed below have been aggregated from the many forms and voicemails we have received from our website visitors since the coronavirus pandemic began and are being updated whenever possible.

We welcome all inquiries. The better we can understand your challenges, the better we can design solutions for them around these new technological capabilities. If there is something that is on your mind that we might not have covered, please get in touch with us today!

Far UV Technologies is here to help you in any and all capacities.

Click below to see our commons questions and answers…

A good overview of Far UV technology, including its efficacy and safety, can be found in the following link to a White Paper recently published by Boeing:

https://www.boeing.com/confident-travel/downloads/CAP-3_Disinfection_with_Far-UV.pdf

Far UV can autonomously and continuously disinfect viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in which potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. Along with effective diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies, the elimination of pathogens in occupied spaces is a critical element for the eradication of disease. Far UV technology is an essential addition to existing sanitation practices, as part of a multi-pronged approach to prevent the spread of existing and emerging infectious diseases.

To date, we are unaware of any bacteria, viruses, or fungi that far UV light has not been able to successfully kill. Efficacy data is available specifically assessing 222nm far UV light against organisms such as foodborne illnesses caused by E. coli and Salmonella, hospital-acquired infections (HAI) caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) or C. diff, influenza A (H1N1), adenoviruses, and coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 (the pathogen that causes COVID-19). The rapidly growing list is available upon request and will be published soon by the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA).

There is ample publicly available peer-reviewed literature available. Links for a few of these and other webinars are supplied below from some of the leading subject matter experts in the industry. We will be adding to this list periodically:

Wipes and Chemical Solutions: Wiping down surfaces regularly can be a useful part of a multi-layered disinfection strategy but have not proven to be effective at eliminating the spread of pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 alone. The traditional sanitation practice of wiping down surfaces, spraying or fogging generates physical waste, introduces potentially troublesome chemicals to an environment and requires paid labor to implement. The cost of utilizing Krypton disinfection lighting is often 50-100 times cheaper than those alternatives when factoring in labor and materials costs and is not subject to human error and missing intended spots. Attempting to clean while spaces are occupied is also disruptive and often impossible. In contrast, Krypton lighting provides safe autonomous, and continuous disinfection while spaces are occupied, without the use of water, bleach, chemicals, rags, paper towels, mercury, hydrogen peroxide, cold plasma or ozone.

Ventilation: A popular and effective alternative to reduce the risk of indoor airborne exposure has been to utilize HVAC systems to bring in fresh air to dilute the potential viral load. A significant challenge with this strategy is that if the ambient temperatures outside are around comfortable room temperature, the HVAC systems have largely been programmed not to run, which would result in no fresh air. On the other hand, when the outside temperatures are not close to room temperature, just venting out all of the conditioned air outside can be about 9.5 times the cost of Upper Room or Whole Room Far UV solutions.

HEPA Filters: A HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Air) filter can be an important part of common air purifier systems and is recognized by NIOSH as an evidence-based disinfection solution. The potential challenge in relying on HEPA filters alone is that ASHRAE estimates only 40-60% of the air within a space is recirculated through the ductwork if the HEPA filter is mounted in the HVAC ductwork and even less may be filtered in smaller portable units. They also do nothing for surface contamination and could potentially spread the viral load beyond the area a contamination event would have naturally settled.

Deionization Systems: The potential attraction of deionization systems is they are cheap and their manufacturers indicate they may have relatively long product lives. However, as far as actual disinfection in real-world applications is concerned, there do not appear to be independent studies confirming evidence-based efficacy and there are reports they may be creating unwanted byproducts.

HVAC UV-C Disinfection: Ultraviolet light is the only evidence-based disinfection alternative recognized by ASHRAE to be effective. Appropriately sized 254nm UV-C systems in the ductwork can deactivate airborne pathogens in the ductwork fairly effectively. However, ASHRAE also estimates only 40-60% of the air within a space is recirculated through the ductwork where conventional UV-C can safely disinfect and be shielded from human exposure, leaving significant spaces where the viral load can remain within a room. Conventional 254nm UV-C in the ductwork also does nothing to treat the surfaces within a space leaving considerable additional exposure risk whereas Far UV can treat all of the air and the tops of surfaces in a room. Second, when organisms are inactivated by 254nm UV-C, a significant amount may be reactivated by exposure to UV-A or visible blue light found in sunlight, fluorescent lights and other light sources after sanitation within a day or even hours, unlike Far UV which provides a more permanent kill.

Upper-Room Germicidal UV-C Disinfection: Upper Room Germicidal UV has proven to be even more effective at reducing the viral load in occupied rooms than HVAC ductwork based systems, particularly when utilized in a room with ceiling fans to provide better air mixing. Upper-Air germicidal UV-C (254nm) systems are designed not to expose people to their harmful radiation. However, when a carrier contaminates a space either with a sneeze, cough, talking, breathing or singing, gravity immediately begins to pull most of the pathogens towards the ground or other surfaces (such as desks, chairs, etc). As a result, while these upper air systems may also use air handling systems to try to fight gravity, they may not address a meaningful amount of the contaminated air and surfaces and may even keep some pathogens airborne longer which could be counterproductive. They also do not provide any surface treatment. Because Krypton lighting is safe for human exposure, it can overcome these challenges from the ceiling to the floor in either upper-room or ceiling-mount fixtures, providing a much more comprehensive whole room disinfection solution.

Ultimately, we believe Far UV-C provides the safest, most cost-effective, evidence-based disinfection solution for healthy buildings and vehicles.

The Krypton™ light sanitizes the air it travels through and the surfaces it hits. While it effectively kills unwanted pathogens, it does not remove soil or spills from surfaces. As a result, we recommend using Krypton™ disinfection lighting as part of a multi-layered sanitation approach, combining it with existing conventional cleaning methods during non-occupied hours. It can also be used to augment any of the other disinfection methods noted in #4 above for even greater disinfection efficacy.

Krypton disinfection lighting is appropriate for use in almost any space you would like to disinfect. Far UV is currently being used in schools, defense applications, hospitals, medical and dental clinics, elderly care facilities, airports, buses, offices and elevators, daycare centers, hotels, retail, restaurants, gymnasiums, locker rooms, fitness facilities, dining facilities and more. We invite you to contact us to discuss your specific needs. Our team has far more application development experience with 222nm Far UV than any other company and can help design safe and effective implementation for your applications.

We recommend prioritizing use in the highest-traffic, highest-risk often occupied locations. Krypton disinfection lighting can be used alone or as part of a multi-pronged strategy to keep your facilities or vehicles safe.

The area of coverage depends on your room dimensions, the user risk profile and the Krypton solutions chosen. The lights can provide disinfection for up to or over 1,000 square feet of space. Even a single light can materially reduce the viral load of almost any space. As a result, Krypton disinfection lighting can fit into most budgets. The higher the ceiling, the wider the coverage (but the weaker the light – think of shining a flashlight on a wall, and how the beam spreads and dissipates as you get further from the wall). The decreased intensity still provides disinfection, it just changes how long the light needs to be on to achieve the same effect as it does on closer surfaces. For broader coverage, strategically spaced lamps could be installed around a room creating overlapping treatment zones (much in the way regular lighting plans are designed), potentially providing even greater coverage or efficacy. Any certified electrician can install Krypton lighting. After reviewing your building dimensions, electrical and mechanical floor plans, we or our strategic distributors, sales reps, or installers will work with you to help determine how many, and where, Krypton lights should be placed in your facility. Please don’t hesitate to send us your dimensional and electrical floor plans (including ceiling heights) to expedite the process along with your priority areas for Krypton protection (if known).

Our most common solutions are our Krypton-11 and Krypton-36 overhead or Upper Room lighting fixtures. They are a set-it-and-forget-it solution resembling oversized smoke detectors, which continuously and autonomously disinfect a given area of surfaces and the air above them. They would typically be installed in your highest traffic – highest risk often occupied areas. The Krypton-11 is best used with ceiling heights below 11 feet (3.3 meters) and the Krypton-36 is best utilized with ceiling heights below 36 feet (or about 11 meters).

The Krypton Shield is a compact collapsible mobile floor lamp that is about the size of a golf umbrella that can be quickly deployed with a telescoping pole on a tripod to up to 9 ft ceiling heights or more. The Krypton Shield is plug-and-play right out of the box (does not require electrical installation). Finally, we have codeveloped high-powered handheld wand solutions with Boeing operating at 222 nm for very rapid (less than one second) three-log or 99.9% disinfection of surfaces. These devices were designed for the rapid cleaning of airplane cockpits in between crew changes where individually cleaning hundreds of knobs is not practical with conventional wipe methods and using an abundance of chemicals on electronics is discouraged. Please see our product specification sheets for more detail or contact us to discuss your application.

Unfortunately, Far UV-C is best created with excimer lamps and these specialty lights cannot be used with existing lighting fixtures. Far UV Technologies has more experience than anyone in the design of safe, reliable, efficient, and cost-effective Far UV products and given the high degree of know-how needed to engineer and commercialize market-ready products and the importance for us and our component providers to provide safe and effective solutions, we are not offering components for sale for integration into other products at this time.

A Krypton Chloride Far UV bulb will typically last about 3,000 hours. While you may hear about other Far UV bulbs that last significantly longer, they are either likely not 222nm UV, the seller may not be appropriately representing it or they may be more expensive and less practical than using multiple bulbs or fixtures over time, much as we do with conventional lighting. Carefully read the manufacturer’s marketing materials as they may be referring to calendar hours including hours when the lamp is not in operation. Depending on the usage, those 3,000 hours of “on-time” can provide an expected product life of well over 30,000 hours or between 1-15 years. As with any other light, you can extend the useful life in practice by simply turning it off whenever is not needed (either because the room is not occupied or no longer requires disinfection). A well-designed system will not only take into account product life but also disinfection efficacy, safety, and upfront cost. When the useful life of a Krypton lamp has ended, much like other electronic hardware, it is often currently more economical to replace the entire fixture rather than try to replace components.

The limited warranty set forth below is given by Far UV Technologies, Inc. and applies to the Far UV Technologies fixture only. The product when delivered to you in new condition in its original container is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service for a period of 6 months from the date of purchase. If the product is found to be defective during this warranty period Far UV Technologies will repair or exchange the unit for a new or refurbished unit as determined by Far UV Technologies.

While Krypton disinfection lighting has been proven to be safe for human and animal exposure and does not exceed the IEC/ACGIH guidelines, it is not a cure for COVID-19 or other diseases and is not intended to be used for disinfecting people or equipment to be used in medical procedures on people. Instead, it is meant to disinfect the environments (air and surfaces) that people inhabit or come into contact with to prevent the risk of infection between people. As a result, Krypton disinfection lights are not medical devices and thus do not require FDA approval. If others are interested in using 222nm lighting in medical devices, those products may require FDA approval. Far UV Technologies is regulated and registered with the EPA under Establishment #96253 to provide our products and complies with all FIFRA labeling and other regulatory requirements.

It is unfortunately very difficult for an end-user without NIST calibrated equipment to visually tell the difference between 222nm Krypton disinfection lighting and traditional 254nm UV-C in operation. If it is not using krypton to generate 222nm or 207nm light, it is not Far UV. Current material limitations prohibit LEDs from efficiently being able to create UV much below 260nm so there are no currently effective Far UV LED alternatives.

Using the brand name Krypton™ will hopefully minimize confusion versus other “UVC” 254nm alternatives who have been more recently renaming themselves Far UVC and causing confusion among potential purchasers seeking a human-safe and effective solution for “occupied” space applications. We have seen advertisements for other systems claiming to be Far UVC or even 222nm systems that are not. We recommend purchasing Krypton disinfection lighting from reputable sources. Please do not hesitate to contact us to ensure your supplier is sourcing their product from reputable and reliable sources.

While it has long been a question of when, and not if, a global pandemic would occur, the recent rapid spread of COVID-19 in our increasingly interconnected world has caused global socio-economic and political unrest at an unprecedented scale. The economic cost has been several trillion dollars with unemployment rates not seen since the great depression. The reality of COVID-19, and fear of inevitable future outbreaks, have significantly heightened demand for new technologies for mitigating the spread of dangerous pathogens.

Krypton™ disinfection lighting (operating at 222nm—Far Ultraviolet light wavelength) can autonomously and continuously disinfect viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of the coronavirus and similar outbreaks where potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. While each human or animal has a different immune system response and vulnerability to either an initial infection (which can often be asymptomatic in the case of COVID-19) or subsequent infection to COVID-19 or any other infectious disease (when the body is weakened), Krypton disinfection lighting can significantly reduce the viral load of an environment before our bodies even encounter them. Together, with better sanitation as part of a multi-pronged approach, we can reduce the spread of existing or emerging dangerous pathogens and potentially provide UNIVERSAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE MITIGATION.

UV lighting capable of reliably reproducing a narrow band around 222nm has, until relatively recently, simply not been technically or commercially available, which prevented data from being captured and evaluated for potential applications. In addition, in the pre-COVID-19 era, demand for disinfection of the spaces people occupy was low, as traditional sanitation practices were, with some notable exceptions such as hospital-acquired infections and foodborne illness, able to either effectively mitigate the spread of illness or people had just accepted the risks, even if better solutions were available. Further, most people alive today had not previously faced a global pandemic, and with short memories and/or a fatalistic belief that nothing could be done to eradicate disease, there was less concern or at least a lack of a call to action regarding infectious disease-causing pathogens.

Far UV has been proven to be the safest and most effective evidenced-based disinfection method by leading researchers from Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins, Harvard, Colorado, St Andrews, Hiroshima, Kobe and countless other reputable academic medical research institutions, corporations such as Boeing and Acuity, and trade organizations such as ASP, IUVA and ASHRAE.

Before the pandemic, Far UV Technologies was able to fund its research and development through grants and awards from NASA and the US Army. After the pandemic started, commercial demand for better disinfection solutions provided an opportunity for Far UV Technologies to double its sales and production capacity every few months with internally generated positive cash flows. The technology and company risks have now been reduced enough for conventional lending and equity alternatives to fund our increasing working capital requirements. While we did not plan on raising external equity capital, the over $3 trillion of COVID-19 relief funding targeting markets like education, healthcare and transportation, where we have already proven our best in class solutions, have accelerated our growth plans and working capital requirements.

The impact of Krypton™ disinfection lighting has been and will continue to be profound. The coronavirus and other recent new contagious diseases such as SARS, MERS, Ebola, and others have proven in an increasingly interconnected world that there are no real borders when it comes to infectious disease. Current estimates are that approximately 70% or more of the global population across almost every country and/or demographic may eventually be infected by COVID-19 alone and that as many as 1% or more of those may eventually succumb to the disease. Dangerous new pathogens used to spring up every hundred years. More recently, with climate change and in an increasingly connected world, new infectious disease outbreaks have been occurring about every three years (SARS, MERS, Ebola…). If that pattern holds true we should expect the next dangerous pathogen to emerge in 2022, next year. Yet this pales in comparison to infectious disease in general, which is all around us from foodborne illnesses such as E Coli, Salmonella and Listeria, to hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA and C Diff, to TB, mold and even the common cold and flu. Throughout recorded history, one out of every three people born has died of an infectious disease. As a result, Krypton Disinfection Lighting could potentially save billions of lives. If there is anything that COVID-19 has made abundantly clear, it is that expediting the containment or mitigation of infectious diseases will not only save countless lives but provide significant economic, societal, and political benefits. We not only have to address COVID-19, but what comes next.

COVID-19 has been a stark reminder about the biological threats all around us. Social distancing, proper hand hygiene and wearing face masks have helped slow but not stopped the spread of COVID-19, nor will they likely stop the next dangerous pathogen which according to recent trends is due to emerge within the next year. Even with vaccines, we’re still just playing more defense and not actually killing the dangerous pathogens in the air and on the surfaces all around us. But we can’t safely begin relaxing our defenses anytime soon until we reduce the viral load in the air we breathe and on the surfaces we touch all around us.

The New England Journal of Medicine, as well as several other research organizations, have published data suggesting that COVID-19 can be spread via contaminated surfaces where the disease can remain a threat for up to 3 days, and in the air where it may be found active for as long as 3 hours after a cough or sneeze. With an estimated basic reproduction number (R0) transmission rate of 2.2, this implies that every case that can be avoided could in theory minimize the spread of the disease by over 1,000 new cases over 9 cycles of infection and up to 7 million people over 20 cycles of infection.

100% of contamination events occur from someone breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing or singing in a space or onto their hands which they later touch surfaces with. The goal is to reduce the viral load in the air and on the surfaces, the particles fall to or are touched by a contaminated person as completely and quickly as possible after a contamination event and there is simply nothing more safe, immediate and effective than Krypton disinfection lighting at doing so.

Krypton Disinfection Lighting provides the equivalent of an extra N95 mask for every occupant in a space and allows us to start playing offense and reduce the viral load instead of just playing defense, dodgeball or hide and seek. Krypton Disinfection Lighting provides safer environments for us to occupy which will expedite our return to normalcy. Some state and local authorities have already begun increasing occupancy limits for buses or other establishments when Krypton Disinfection lighting is installed as part of a COVID-19 safety strategy in recognition of the safer environments they are providing for their passengers or patrons.

As a recipient of multiple peer-reviewed Phase I, II and III NASA and Department of Defense SBIR research and development contracts, the company has been granted unique Federal designation under the SBIR Reauthorization Act and the SBA SBIR/STTR Policy Directive as the preferred supplier of Far UV for all US Government entities and sponsored programs and is provided with unique sole sourcing options to minimize potential contracting delays and other unique benefits https://www.sbir.gov/tutorials/data-rights/tutorial-4. This has led to a surge of Krypton disinfection lighting installations across the country including but not limited to several Air Force bases and the top levels of the Pentagon with many more in the queue.

Given the increasing demand and interest in rapid deployment, Far UV Technologies has also been issued National Stock Numbers for Krypton Disinfection Lighting as a critical trusted supply requirement by the Defense Logistics Agency further facilitating the preferential ease of acquisition and use for many years to come. Krypton Disinfection Lighting is Made in the USA. We’re networked in through the highest levels of the defense community, Federal, State and local Government agencies and their representatives.

We would love your help! If you’re interested in joining our mission to rid the world of infectious disease-causing pathogens, the easiest and most impactful thing you can immediately do is help us raise awareness about the opportunity for Krypton™ disinfection lighting to be part of the immediate and long-term solution. This could be with your families, friends or communities all of which may have excellent opportunities to bring safer and more effective long-term solutions in the various often fragmented markets we are trying to help, from schools, to healthcare facilities to transportation and many more. Keeping safe from dangerous pathogens is now an option and end-users who want to increase confidence in their safety and want it can now ask for or demand it from their employers or political representatives. Pathogens do not know borders, gender, age or ethnicity.

You can also help with referrals to domestic or global end-users, channel partners, influencers, media, investors, or employment candidates. If you believe you have important access to these or other important channels/connections, please spread the word and/or contact us at your earliest convenience for potential introductions. Please share our website, contact information, and/or story via whatever medium you think most appropriate. Awareness is our current greatest challenge. We very much appreciate any help you can provide in overcoming this pandemic, future ones and even many of the common now preventable illnesses we’ve all just had to deal with.

If you’re interested in a more significant role, please send a cover letter and resume or your thoughts to info@faruv.com. We are currently considering job candidates for a Supply Chain Manager, Accountant/Office Manager, Sales Manager, Inside Sales and Internships in the Kansas City area. We are also establishing a global network of strategic partners for sales representation and installation services. If you are an electrical contractor and would like to carry or install our product, please contact us.

Far UV Technologies has done a variety of limited testing on all kinds of surfaces from plastics to steel, wood, paper, countertops, clothing, paint, and food under our NASA contract and beyond. At this point, we have not noticed significant material degradation with our relatively low power lamps. Boeing has also completed significant materials testing with higher-powered lamps and also confirmed little to no materials degradation for the materials found in an airplane cockpit beyond potential discoloration for some plastics. Presumably, for the same reason, 222nm cannot penetrate the human and animal cells, the physical characteristics prevent it from penetrating most surfaces and the potential to induce significant material damage. That said, we will continue to be testing organic materials for potential longer-term impacts and recommend users with potentially sensitive applications consult with us for installation best practices.

Yes, but they do often differ from the protocols and equipment used to validate 254nm UV-C disinfection performance. Below are a couple of the challenges we have encountered in the market and solutions for them:

  • 254nm calibrated dosage strips or dosimeters often do not accurately measure 222nm fluence/dosage. While many of these devices claim detection capabilities for wavelengths between 200-280nm, they are often one or more orders of magnitude less likely to detect light at the far end of the spectrum (between 200-230nm) and/or extrapolate expected dosage based on mercury lamp curves. Far UV Technologies uses NIST calibrated Thorlabs, Hamamatsu, and International Light sensors for accurate 222nm measurements in the labs and quality control prior to shipping. These are commercially available for purchase and Far UV Technologies has also developed a new line of lower cost reliable handheld meters calibrated to 222nm to validate and certify dosage in the field. Far UV Technologies and/or its installers certify our installations and provide as-installed disinfection confirmation when we or our network of contractors install Krypton disinfection solutions. In addition, other industry participants have created new 222nm calibrated films that can also indicate dosage.
  • Measuring microbiological efficacy in the field is typically not practical for any disinfection solution as the preexisting bacterial or viral loads and types are unknown. The current gold standard for disinfection efficacy is to introduce known concentrations of known pathogens, treat them, culture them and then determine disinfection efficacy ~24-48 hours later. However, few end users prefer to introduce virulent pathogens into their environments due to the intrinsic safety risks. As a result, accurately measuring the Krypton Far UV fluence as noted above and then referencing tables of lab proven efficacy are currently the best ways to validate and certify disinfection safely in facilities and vehicles. That said, Far UV Technologies is supporting several academic and industry studies and will continue to welcome and support institutional partners to further validate our products in the field and in the labs.
  • PCR techniques can help identify bacterial or viral presence but are not good at confirming whether RNA is alive or dead, just that it is present. This is a challenge with 222nm as Far UV kills the pathogens through protein damage, eliminating the chance of infectivity but the nonviable cells are still detected with PCR. We confirmed this under our NASA testing and Hiroshima University confirmed it as well in their published study on 222nm efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 noted in #3. The TCID50 assay has proven to be a more effective microbiological test method than PCR.
  • Some standardized test protocols utilize protein-rich bovine or other solutions when testing which inhibit 222nm test accuracy. A growing body of evidence is suggesting the most dangerous particles are the smallest droplets that can remain airborne longer and can reach deeper into the lungs of an uninfected individual. The smaller the droplet, the less potential saliva or other accompanying materials/solution and the less the real world impact on 222nm penetration of the targeted pathogens.

Far UV devices for air, surface and water disinfection have been documented in technical and other publications since the 1980s, if not earlier. Much of that prior art is now available in the public domain and in commercial use. Since completing an intellectual property landscape analysis in early 2017, Far UV Technologies has filed multiple utility and design patents and trademarks to protect its own innovations and brands. Far UV Technologies has also entered into a Technology and Licensing Agreement with Boeing to provide its customers the combined benefits of one of the largest Intellectual Property portfolios in the industry. Finally, the company’s management team also has as much if not more manufacturing know-how, real-world applications development expertise and actual installations with end-users than anyone else in the industry allowing for the design, delivery, and implementation of the safest, most effective, and cost-efficient solutions which have led to significant and important additional trade secrets.

We are aware of another company making broad IP claims to products on the market that use Far UV light sources. Please be aware that Far UV Technologies and others in the industry have explained to that company why its claims are wrong. It is currently being sued by another industry participant for making these false claims and for its tortious business interference with their prospective customers: https://www.law.com/radar/card/healthe-inc-v-high-energy-ozone-llc-d-b-a-far-uv-sterilray-et-al-37421852-0/. If you believe you may also have been a victim of these marketing claims or practices from this company, please do not hesitate to let us know.

Yes! Krypton Disinfection Lighting qualifies for CARES Act, CRRSAA, ARPA and other Federal funding that can pay for up to the entire cost of the equipment and installation. Other state and local funding is also often available to mitigate COVID-19 or otherwise improve public safety. Eligibility includes but is not limited to education, healthcare, transportation, infrastructure, various non-profits and restaurant applications. In addition, Far UV Technologies and its multiple strategic partners can also provide financing solutions for Krypton disinfection lighting.

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Quickly find out whether we have already addressed any questions you might have. The Frequently Asked Questions listed below have been aggregated from the many forms and voicemails we have received from our website visitors since the coronavirus pandemic began and are being regularly updated as appropriate.

We welcome all inquiries. The better we can understand your challenges, the better we can design solutions for them around these new technological capabilities. If there is something that is on your mind that we might not have covered, please get in touch with us today!

Far UV Technologies is here to help you in any and all capacities.

Click below to see our commons questions and answers…

A good overview of Far UV technology, including its efficacy and safety, can be found in the following link to a White Paper recently published by Boeing:

https://www.boeing.com/confident-travel/downloads/CAP-3_Disinfection_with_Far-UV.pdf

Far UV can autonomously and continuously disinfect viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in which potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. Along with effective diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies, the elimination of pathogens in occupied spaces is a critical element for the eradication of disease. Far UV technology is an essential addition to existing sanitation practices, as part of a multi-pronged approach to prevent the spread of existing and emerging infectious diseases.

To date, we are unaware of any bacteria, viruses, or fungi that far UV light has not been able to successfully kill. Efficacy data is available specifically assessing 222nm far UV light against organisms such as foodborne illnesses caused by E. coli and Salmonella, hospital-acquired infections (HAI) caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) or C. diff, influenza A (H1N1), adenoviruses, and coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 (the pathogen that causes COVID-19). The rapidly growing list is available upon request and will be published soon by the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA).

There is ample publicly available peer-reviewed literature available. Links for a few of these and other webinars are supplied below from some of the leading subject matter experts in the industry. We will be adding to this list periodically:

• New England Journal of Medicine – Infectivity study – https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc2004973
• Hiroshima University – Effectiveness of 222-nm ultraviolet light on disinfecting the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen which causes COVID-19 – https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(20)30809-9/fulltext
• Queen Mary University of London – Estimating airborne efficacy comparable to N95 mask – https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76597-y
• Columbia University Medical Center – Efficacy of 222-nm on airborne coronaviruses – https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67211-2
• Columbia University Medical Center – Airborne efficacy study –https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21058-w
• Columbia University Medical Center – Webinar – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iJuSNI3Y98
• Columbia University Medical Center – Skin safety study –https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552051/
• Kobe University – Skin safety study – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/php.13269
• British Journal of Dermatology – Skin safety study – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjd.19816
• Kobe University – Skin safety study – https://www.ushio.com/ushio-inc-and-kobe-university-have-achieved-the-worlds-first-successful-reduction-of-bacteria-using-ultraviolet-irradiation-that-is-harmless-to-normal-human-skin/
• Harvard University – Webinar on Upper Room Germicidal UV foreshadowing whole room disinfection opportunities with Far UV – https://ghdcenter.hms.harvard.edu/keeping-public-spaces-safe

Wipes: The traditional sanitation practice of wiping down surfaces, spraying or fogging generates physical waste, introduces potentially troublesome chemicals to an environment and requires paid labor to implement. The cost of utilizing Krypton disinfection lighting is often 50-100 times cheaper than those alternatives when factoring in labor and materials costs and is not subject to human error and missing spots. Attempting to clean while spaces are occupied is also disruptive and often impossible. In contrast, Krypton lighting provides safe autonomous, and continuous disinfection while spaces are occupied, without the use of water, bleach, chemicals, rags, paper towels, mercury, hydrogen peroxide, cold plasma, or ozone.

Ventilation: A popular alternative to reduce the risk of indoor airborne exposure has been to utilize HVAC systems to bring in fresh air to dilute the potential viral load. A significant challenge with this strategy is that if the ambient temperatures outside are around comfortable room temperature, the HVAC systems have largely been programmed not to run, which would result in no fresh air. On the other hand, when the outside temperatures are not close to room temperature, just venting out all of the conditioned air outside turns out to be about 9.5 times the cost of Upper Room or Whole Room Far UV solutions.

HEPA Filters: A HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Air) filter can be an important part of common air purifier systems promising to improve the air quality in your home or office. But there are a lot of misconceptions about the HEPA standard, whether or not an air purifier or filter truly meets the HEPA standard, and what a HEPA filter can and can’t do.

To understand how HEPA works, think of it as a mesh of tangled fibers. The sheet is usually folded into pleats to increase the surface area and filter life. Air flows through the fibers and large enough particles get trapped when they hit the fibers. So it’s a size game that very clearly helps understand what HEPA can filter and what not. HEPA works well and is effective at removing large enough particulate matter like pet dander, pollen, and dust mites.

While HEPA filters remove some particulates from the air, there are many harmful contaminants in the air that aren’t particulate matter.

VOCs: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are airborne chemicals that mostly derive from off-gassing of building materials or products in our homes as well as cleaning products aside from other sources like beauty products. The most concerning health effect associated with VOCs is that some are well-known carcinogens. HEPA filters are unable to remove VOC’s as they simply are far smaller in size than what can be trapped.

Viruses: Much like VOCs, viruses are also too small to be removed. Despite this fact, HEPA-based products were marketed for a long time with the claim to protect from viruses. The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has now regulated that HEPA filter-based products can no longer make that claim.

Bacteria: While bacteria are large enough to be trapped, bacteria are understood to release endotoxins into the air stream when dying on the air filter surface. Studies have demonstrated that endotoxins cause inflammatory and atopic responses in nonasthmatic and asthmatic participants.

Mold: Mold spores are large enough to be caught in HEPA filters but stay alive on the filter surface. Other particles that accumulate and fill the filter start acting as nutrients and allow mold spores to potentially grow on and through the filter membrane and eventually release new spores into the air.

It is important to say that frequent replacement of filters is critical since pathogens collected on the filter can include live organisms and eventually pathogens are re-released into the air. It is also important to note that ASHRAE estimates only 40-60% of the air within a space is recirculated through the ductwork if the HEPA filter is mounted in the HVAC ductwork and considerably less is likely to be filtered in smaller portable units. They also do nothing for surface contamination and could potentially spread the viral load beyond the area a contamination event would have naturally settled.

HVAC Deionization Disinfection: ASHRAE recommends about 6 air changes per hour through the ductwork. This implies that the air within a room is pushed through the ductwork once every 10 minutes. Deionization products create ions that remain unstable and capable of surrounding pathogens for between 30-90 seconds or about one minute on average, hoping to add enough mass to pull the air particles to the floor or into filters in the HVAC ductwork. Since these ions rely on the HVAC airflow and/or ceiling fan air mixing for distribution throughout a space, they may only treat the 10% of the room closest to the ductwork vent blowing into the room or less considering they also had to travel through the ductwork to get to the room. Turning the system up higher is not recommended by manufacturers as it potentially impacts the ability to provide preferred climate control and can create hazardous amounts of ozone and/or CO₂. The attraction of deionization systems is they are cheap, have relatively long product lives and perform well in small, controlled lab experiments. However, as far as actual disinfection in real-world applications is concerned, there do not appear to be significant independent studies confirming efficacy and they may fall far short of the intended or expected level of air or surface disinfection (safety).

HVAC UV-C Disinfection: Ultraviolet light is the only evidence-based disinfection alternative recognized by ASHRAE to be effective. Appropriately sized 254nm UV-C systems in the ductwork can deactivate airborne pathogens in the ductwork fairly effectively. However, ASHRAE also estimates only 40-60% of the air within a space is recirculated through the ductwork where conventional UV-C can safely disinfect and be shielded from human exposure, leaving significant spaces where the viral load can remain within a room. Conventional 254nm UV-C in the ductwork also does nothing to treat the surfaces within a space leaving considerable additional exposure risk whereas Far UV can treat all of the air and the tops of surfaces in a room. Second, when organisms are inactivated by 254nm UV-C, a significant amount may be reactivated by exposure to UV-A or visible blue light found in sunlight, fluorescent lights and other light sources after sanitation within a day or even hours, unlike Far UV which provides a permanent kill.

Upper Room Germicidal UV-C Disinfection: Upper Room Germicidal UV has proven to be even more effective at reducing the viral load in occupied rooms than HVAC ductwork based systems, particularly when utilized in a room with ceiling fans to provide better air mixing. Upper-Air germicidal UV-C (254nm) systems are designed not to expose people to their harmful radiation. However, when a carrier contaminates a space either with a sneeze, cough, talking, breathing or singing, gravity immediately begins to pull most of the pathogens towards the ground or other surfaces (such as desks, chairs, etc). As a result, while these upper air systems may also use air handling systems to try to fight gravity, they may not address a meaningful amount of the contaminated air and surfaces and may even keep some pathogens airborne longer which could be counterproductive. They also do not provide any surface treatment. Because Krypton lighting is safe for human exposure, it can overcome these challenges from the ceiling to the floor, providing a much more comprehensive whole room disinfection solution. Ultimately, Far UV-C provides the safest, most cost-effective, evidence-based disinfection solution for healthy buildings and vehicles.

The Krypton™ light sanitizes the air it travels through and the surfaces it hits. While it effectively kills unwanted pathogens, it does not remove soil or spills from surfaces. As a result, we recommend using Krypton™ disinfection lighting as part of a multi-layered sanitation approach, combining it with existing conventional cleaning methods during non-occupied hours. It can also be used to augment any of the other disinfection methods noted in #4 above for even greater disinfection efficacy.

Krypton disinfection lighting is appropriate for use in almost any space you would like to disinfect. Far UV is currently being used in schools, defense applications, hospitals, medical and dental clinics, elderly care facilities, airports, buses, offices and elevators, daycare centers, hotels, retail, restaurants, gymnasiums, locker rooms, fitness facilities, dining facilities and more. We invite you to contact us to discuss your specific needs. Our team has far more application development experience with 222nm Far UV than any other company and can help design safe and effective implementation for your applications.

We recommend prioritizing use in the highest-traffic, highest-risk often occupied locations. Krypton disinfection lighting can be used alone or as part of a multi-pronged strategy to keep your facilities or vehicles safe.

The area of coverage depends on your room dimensions, the user risk profile and the Krypton solutions chosen. The lights can provide disinfection for up to or over 1,000 square feet of space. Even a single light can materially reduce the viral load of almost any space. As a result, Krypton disinfection lighting can fit into most budgets. The higher the ceiling, the wider the coverage (but the weaker the light – think of shining a flashlight on a wall, and how the beam spreads and dissipates as you get further from the wall). The decreased intensity still provides disinfection, it just changes how long the light needs to be on to achieve the same effect as it does on closer surfaces. For broader coverage, strategically spaced lamps could be installed around a room creating overlapping treatment zones (much in the way regular lighting plans are designed), potentially providing even greater coverage or efficacy. Any certified electrician can install Krypton lighting. After reviewing your building dimensions, electrical and mechanical floor plans, we or our strategic distributors, sales reps, or installers will work with you to help determine how many, and where, Krypton lights should be placed in your facility. Please don’t hesitate to send us your dimensional and electrical floor plans (including ceiling heights) to expedite the process along with your priority areas for Krypton protection (if known).

Our most common solutions are our Krypton-11 and Krypton-36 overhead or Upper Room lighting fixtures. They are a set-it-and-forget-it solution resembling oversized smoke detectors, which continuously and autonomously disinfect a given area of surfaces and the air above them. They would typically be installed in your highest traffic – highest risk often occupied areas. The Krypton-11 is best used with ceiling heights below 11 feet (3.3 meters) and the Krypton-36 is best utilized with ceiling heights below 36 feet (or about 11 meters).

The Krypton Shield is a compact collapsible mobile floor lamp that is about the size of a golf umbrella that can be quickly deployed with a telescoping pole on a tripod to up to 9 ft ceiling heights or more. The Krypton Shield is plug-and-play right out of the box (does not require electrical installation). Finally, we have codeveloped high-powered handheld wand solutions with Boeing operating at 222 nm for very rapid (less than one second) three-log or 99.9% disinfection of surfaces. These devices were designed for the rapid cleaning of airplane cockpits in between crew changes where individually cleaning hundreds of knobs is not practical with conventional wipe methods and using an abundance of chemicals on electronics is discouraged. Please see our product specification sheets for more detail or contact us to discuss your application.

Unfortunately, Far UV-C is best created with excimer lamps and these specialty lights cannot be used with existing lighting fixtures. Far UV Technologies has more experience than anyone in the design of safe, reliable, efficient, and cost-effective Far UV products and given the high degree of know-how needed to engineer and commercialize market-ready products and the importance for us and our component providers to provide safe and effective solutions, we are not offering components for sale for integration into other products at this time.

A Krypton Chloride Far UV bulb will typically last about 3,000 hours. While you may hear about other Far UV bulbs that last significantly longer, they are either likely not 222nm UV, the seller may not be appropriately representing it or they may be more expensive and less practical than using multiple bulbs or fixtures over time, much as we do with conventional lighting. Carefully read the manufacturer’s marketing materials as they may be referring to calendar hours including hours when the lamp is not in operation. Depending on the usage, those 3,000 hours of “on-time” can provide an expected product life of well over 30,000 hours or between 1-15 years. As with any other light, you can extend the useful life in practice by simply turning it off whenever is not needed (either because the room is not occupied or no longer requires disinfection). A well-designed system will not only take into account product life but also disinfection efficacy, safety, and upfront cost. When the useful life of a Krypton lamp has ended, much like other electronic hardware, it is often currently more economical to replace the entire fixture rather than try to replace components.

The limited warranty set forth below is given by Far UV Technologies, Inc. and applies to the Far UV Technologies fixture only. The product when delivered to you in new condition in its original container is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service for a period of 6 months from the date of purchase. If the product is found to be defective during this warranty period Far UV Technologies will repair or exchange the unit for a new or refurbished unit as determined by Far UV Technologies.

While Krypton disinfection lighting has been proven to be safe for human and animal exposure and does not exceed the IEC/ACGIH guidelines, it is not a cure for COVID-19 or other diseases and is not intended to be used for disinfecting people or equipment to be used in medical procedures on people. Instead, it is meant to disinfect the environments (air and surfaces) that people inhabit or come into contact with to prevent the risk of infection between people. As a result, Krypton disinfection lights are not medical devices and thus do not require FDA approval. If others are interested in using 222nm lighting in medical devices, those products may require FDA approval. Far UV Technologies is regulated and registered with the EPA under Establishment #96253 to provide our products and complies with all FIFRA labeling and other regulatory requirements.

It is unfortunately very difficult for an end-user without NIST calibrated equipment to visually tell the difference between 222nm Krypton disinfection lighting and traditional 254nm UV-C in operation. If it is not using krypton to generate 222nm or 207nm light, it is not Far UV. Current material limitations prohibit LEDs from efficiently being able to create UV much below 260nm so there are no currently effective Far UV LED alternatives.

Using the brand name Krypton™ will hopefully minimize confusion versus other “UVC” 254nm alternatives who have been more recently renaming themselves Far UVC and causing confusion among potential purchasers seeking a human-safe and effective solution for “occupied” space applications. We have seen advertisements for other systems claiming to be Far UVC or even 222nm systems that are not. We recommend purchasing Krypton disinfection lighting from reputable sources. Please do not hesitate to contact us to ensure your supplier is sourcing their product from reputable and reliable sources.

While it has long been a question of when, and not if, a global pandemic would occur, the recent rapid spread of COVID-19 in our increasingly interconnected world has caused global socio-economic and political unrest at an unprecedented scale. The economic cost has been several trillion dollars with unemployment rates not seen since the great depression. The reality of COVID-19, and fear of inevitable future outbreaks, have significantly heightened demand for new technologies for mitigating the spread of dangerous pathogens.

Krypton™ disinfection lighting (operating at 222nm—Far Ultraviolet light wavelength) can autonomously and continuously disinfect viruses, bacteria, and fungi in occupied spaces, which is essential for containing and mitigating the emerging threat of the coronavirus and similar outbreaks where potentially infected human carriers in occupied locations are often not distinguishable from the non-carriers. While each human or animal has a different immune system response and vulnerability to either an initial infection (which can often be asymptomatic in the case of COVID-19) or subsequent infection to COVID-19 or any other infectious disease (when the body is weakened), Krypton disinfection lighting can significantly reduce the viral load of an environment before our bodies even encounter them. Together, with better sanitation as part of a multi-pronged approach, we can reduce the spread of existing or emerging dangerous pathogens and potentially provide UNIVERSAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE MITIGATION.

UV lighting capable of reliably reproducing a narrow band around 222nm has, until relatively recently, simply not been technically or commercially available, which prevented data from being captured and evaluated for potential applications. In addition, in the pre-COVID-19 era, demand for disinfection of the spaces people occupy was low, as traditional sanitation practices were, with some notable exceptions such as hospital-acquired infections and foodborne illness, able to either effectively mitigate the spread of illness or people had just accepted the risks, even if better solutions were available. Further, most people alive today had not previously faced a global pandemic, and with short memories and/or a fatalistic belief that nothing could be done to eradicate disease, there was less concern or at least a lack of a call to action regarding infectious disease-causing pathogens.

Far UV has been proven to be the safest and most effective evidenced-based disinfection method by leading researchers from Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins, Harvard, Colorado, St Andrews, Hiroshima, Kobe and countless other reputable academic medical research institutions, corporations such as Boeing and Acuity, and trade organizations such as ASP, IUVA and ASHRAE.

Before the pandemic, Far UV Technologies was able to fund its research and development through grants and awards from NASA and the US Army. After the pandemic started, commercial demand for better disinfection solutions provided an opportunity for Far UV Technologies to double its sales and production capacity every few months with internally generated positive cash flows. The technology and company risks have now been reduced enough for conventional lending and equity alternatives to fund our increasing working capital requirements. While we did not plan on raising external equity capital, the over $3 trillion of COVID-19 relief funding targeting markets like education, healthcare and transportation, where we have already proven our best in class solutions, have accelerated our growth plans and working capital requirements.

The impact of Krypton™ disinfection lighting has been and will continue to be profound. The coronavirus and other recent new contagious diseases such as SARS, MERS, Ebola, and others have proven in an increasingly interconnected world that there are no real borders when it comes to infectious disease. Current estimates are that approximately 70% or more of the global population across almost every country and/or demographic may eventually be infected by COVID-19 alone and that as many as 1% or more of those may eventually succumb to the disease. Dangerous new pathogens used to spring up every hundred years. More recently, with climate change and in an increasingly connected world, new infectious disease outbreaks have been occurring about every three years (SARS, MERS, Ebola…). If that pattern holds true we should expect the next dangerous pathogen to emerge in 2022, next year. Yet this pales in comparison to infectious disease in general, which is all around us from foodborne illnesses such as E Coli, Salmonella and Listeria, to hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA and C Diff, to TB, mold and even the common cold and flu. Throughout recorded history, one out of every three people born has died of an infectious disease. As a result, Krypton Disinfection Lighting could potentially save billions of lives. If there is anything that COVID-19 has made abundantly clear, it is that expediting the containment or mitigation of infectious diseases will not only save countless lives but provide significant economic, societal, and political benefits. We not only have to address COVID-19, but what comes next.

COVID-19 has been a stark reminder about the biological threats all around us. Social distancing, proper hand hygiene and wearing face masks have helped slow but not stopped the spread of COVID-19, nor will they likely stop the next dangerous pathogen which according to recent trends is due to emerge within the next year. Even with vaccines, we’re still just playing more defense and not actually killing the dangerous pathogens in the air and on the surfaces all around us. But we can’t safely begin relaxing our defenses anytime soon until we reduce the viral load in the air we breathe and on the surfaces we touch all around us.

The New England Journal of Medicine, as well as several other research organizations, have published data suggesting that COVID-19 can be spread via contaminated surfaces where the disease can remain a threat for up to 3 days, and in the air where it may be found active for as long as 3 hours after a cough or sneeze. With an estimated basic reproduction number (R0) transmission rate of 2.2, this implies that every case that can be avoided could in theory minimize the spread of the disease by over 1,000 new cases over 9 cycles of infection and up to 7 million people over 20 cycles of infection.

100% of contamination events occur from someone breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing or singing in a space or onto their hands which they later touch surfaces with. The goal is to reduce the viral load in the air and on the surfaces, the particles fall to or are touched by a contaminated person as completely and quickly as possible after a contamination event and there is simply nothing more safe, immediate and effective than Krypton disinfection lighting at doing so.

Krypton Disinfection Lighting provides the equivalent of an extra N95 mask for every occupant in a space and allows us to start playing offense and reduce the viral load instead of just playing defense, dodgeball or hide and seek. Krypton Disinfection Lighting provides safer environments for us to occupy which will expedite our return to normalcy. Some state and local authorities have already begun increasing occupancy limits for buses or other establishments when Krypton Disinfection lighting is installed as part of a COVID-19 safety strategy in recognition of the safer environments they are providing for their passengers or patrons.

As a recipient of multiple peer-reviewed Phase I, II and III NASA and Department of Defense SBIR research and development contracts, the company has been granted unique Federal designation under the SBIR Reauthorization Act and the SBA SBIR/STTR Policy Directive as the preferred supplier of Far UV for all US Government entities and sponsored programs and is provided with unique sole sourcing options to minimize potential contracting delays and other unique benefits https://www.sbir.gov/tutorials/data-rights/tutorial-4. This has led to a surge of Krypton disinfection lighting installations across the country including but not limited to several Air Force bases and the top levels of the Pentagon with many more in the queue.

Given the increasing demand and interest in rapid deployment, Far UV Technologies has also been issued National Stock Numbers for Krypton Disinfection Lighting as a critical trusted supply requirement by the Defense Logistics Agency further facilitating the preferential ease of acquisition and use for many years to come. Krypton Disinfection Lighting is Made in the USA. We’re networked in through the highest levels of the defense community, Federal, State and local Government agencies and their representatives.

We would love your help! If you’re interested in joining our mission to rid the world of infectious disease-causing pathogens, the easiest and most impactful thing you can immediately do is help us raise awareness about the opportunity for Krypton™ disinfection lighting to be part of the immediate and long-term solution. This could be with your families, friends or communities all of which may have excellent opportunities to bring safer and more effective long-term solutions in the various often fragmented markets we are trying to help, from schools, to healthcare facilities to transportation and many more. Keeping safe from dangerous pathogens is now an option and end-users who want to increase confidence in their safety and want it can now ask for or demand it from their employers or political representatives. Pathogens do not know borders, gender, age or ethnicity.

You can also help with referrals to domestic or global end-users, channel partners, influencers, media, investors, or employment candidates. If you believe you have important access to these or other important channels/connections, please spread the word and/or contact us at your earliest convenience for potential introductions. Please share our website, contact information, and/or story via whatever medium you think most appropriate. Awareness is our current greatest challenge. We very much appreciate any help you can provide in overcoming this pandemic, future ones and even many of the common now preventable illnesses we’ve all just had to deal with.

If you’re interested in a more significant role, please send a cover letter and resume or your thoughts to info@faruv.com. We are currently considering job candidates for a Supply Chain Manager, Accountant/Office Manager, Sales Manager, Inside Sales and Internships in the Kansas City area. We are also establishing a global network of strategic partners for distribution, sales representation, and installation services. If you are a distributor or electrical contractor and would like to carry or install our product, please inquire at info@faruv.com.

Far UV Technologies has done a variety of limited testing on all kinds of surfaces from plastics to steel, wood, paper, countertops, clothing, paint, and food under our NASA contract and beyond. At this point, we have not noticed significant material degradation with our relatively low power lamps. Boeing has also completed significant materials testing with higher-powered lamps and also confirmed little to no materials degradation for the materials found in an airplane cockpit beyond potential discoloration for some plastics. Presumably, for the same reason, 222nm cannot penetrate the human and animal cells, the physical characteristics prevent it from penetrating most surfaces and the potential to induce significant material damage. That said, we will continue to be testing organic materials for potential longer-term impacts and recommend users with potentially sensitive applications consult with us for installation best practices.

Yes, but they do often differ from the protocols and equipment used to validate 254nm UV-C disinfection performance. Below are a couple of the challenges we have encountered in the market and solutions for them:

  • 254nm calibrated dosage strips or dosimeters often do not accurately measure 222nm fluence/dosage. While many of these devices claim detection capabilities for wavelengths between 200-280nm, they are often one or more orders of magnitude less likely to detect light at the far end of the spectrum (between 200-230nm) and/or extrapolate expected dosage based on mercury lamp curves. Far UV Technologies uses NIST calibrated Thorlabs, Hamamatsu, and International Light sensors for accurate 222nm measurements in the labs and quality control prior to shipping. These are commercially available for purchase and Far UV Technologies has also developed a new line of lower cost reliable handheld meters calibrated to 222nm to validate and certify dosage in the field. Far UV Technologies and/or its installers certify our installations and provide as-installed disinfection confirmation when we or our network of contractors install Krypton disinfection solutions. In addition, other industry participants have created new 222nm calibrated films that can also indicate dosage.
  • Measuring microbiological efficacy in the field is typically not practical for any disinfection solution as the preexisting bacterial or viral loads and types are unknown. The current gold standard for disinfection efficacy is to introduce known concentrations of known pathogens, treat them, culture them and then determine disinfection efficacy ~24-48 hours later. However, few end users prefer to introduce virulent pathogens into their environments due to the intrinsic safety risks. As a result, accurately measuring the Krypton Far UV fluence as noted above and then referencing tables of lab proven efficacy are currently the best ways to validate and certify disinfection safely in facilities and vehicles. That said, Far UV Technologies is supporting several academic and industry studies and will continue to welcome and support institutional partners to further validate our products in the field and in the labs.
  • PCR techniques can help identify bacterial or viral presence but are not good at confirming whether RNA is alive or dead, just that it is present. This is a challenge with 222nm as Far UV kills the pathogens through protein damage, eliminating the chance of infectivity but the nonviable cells are still detected with PCR. We confirmed this under our NASA testing and Hiroshima University confirmed it as well in their published study on 222nm efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 noted in #3. The TCID50 assay has proven to be a more effective microbiological test method than PCR.
  • Some standardized test protocols utilize protein-rich bovine or other solutions when testing which inhibit 222nm test accuracy. A protein-rich solution, which would often not accompany a contamination event in the real world would absorb the 222nm dosage and impact test results. Sterile water or other non-protein-rich mediums are required for accurate test measurements.

Far UV devices for air, surface and water disinfection have been documented in technical and other publications since the 1980s, if not earlier. Much of that prior art is now available in the public domain and in commercial use. Since completing an intellectual property landscape analysis in early 2017, Far UV Technologies has filed multiple utility and design patents and trademarks to protect its own innovations and brands. Far UV Technologies has also entered into a Technology and Licensing Agreement with Boeing to provide its customers the combined benefits of one of the largest Intellectual Property portfolios in the industry. Finally, the company’s management team also has as much if not more manufacturing know-how, real-world applications development expertise and actual installations with end-users than anyone else in the industry allowing for the design, delivery, and implementation of the safest, most effective, and cost-efficient solutions which have led to significant and important additional trade secrets.

We are aware of another company making broad IP claims to products on the market that use Far UV light sources. Please be aware that Far UV Technologies and others in the industry have explained to that company why its claims are wrong. It is currently being sued by another industry participant for making these false claims and for its tortious business interference with their prospective customers: https://www.law.com/radar/card/healthe-inc-v-high-energy-ozone-llc-d-b-a-far-uv-sterilray-et-al-37421852-0/. If you believe you may also have been a victim of these marketing claims or practices from this company, please do not hesitate to let us know.

Yes! Krypton Disinfection Lighting qualifies for CARES Act, CRRSAA, ARPA and other Federal funding that can pay for up to the entire cost of the equipment and installation. Other state and local funding is also often available to mitigate COVID-19 or otherwise improve public safety. Eligibility includes but is not limited to education, healthcare, transportation, infrastructure, various non-profits and restaurant applications. In addition, Far UV Technologies and its multiple strategic partners can also provide financing solutions for Krypton disinfection lighting.

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